lung biopsy and wedge resection  

- the thoracoscope was introduced through and initial port site placed in the 5th to 7th ICS in the mid to posterior axillary line.

- two additional access sites were typical required

- They were placed at least 10 cm apart in the anterior axillary line and the posterior axillary line to midscapular line.

- The target area was grapsed with a lung clamp or a ring forceps.

- The endoscopic stapler was introduced through another access site for pulmonary biopsy.

- air leak can be checked by instillation of saline on the suture site .

- adequate homeostasis was done.

- A chest tube was inserted into the pleural cavity through the lowest access site for underwater sealed drainage.

- The incision were closed in layers.